一眼看懂2016年SAT改革

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旧版SAT

新版SAT

阅读和写作板块不需要学生引用文中事实。学生通过选择答案展示他们已经理解文章含义,而不需要问及提供任何该答案的支持内容。

以事实为基础的阅读和写作板块。学生需要用具体证据来证明答案,例如学生需要找寻具体文章段落来回答相关问题。

文章来源的学术要求不广泛。虽然SAT的文章会多种多样,当时对于科学和历史累的文章不在要求内。

文章来源的学术覆盖更广泛。学生会在每次SAT考试中读到关于科学、历史和社会学的文章,并且要求用相关课程中学到的分析方法分析文章。

词汇要求有时是生僻词汇或是大学和就业中不会广泛使用的词汇。这些词汇通常有趣并且在某些场合会用到,但是在文章和意义上缺乏广泛性。

考试更多的注重大学和就业中会用到的词汇。新SAT将注重在上下文中特定的合成词汇和多义词的应用。

作文写作通过学生提供个人背景和经历建立论点来考察学生。因为不给学生源材料,因此无法了解他们所列举的论述和举证的准确性。

作文写作要求阅读一篇命题文章后,从文章的分析中建立论点,以此考察学生。写作评分从学生作文中的分析的内容和否贴合命题文章给予相应分数。

数学部分命题来自高中所有数学内容。每个考点一到两题,因此学生需要复习几乎所有的考点。

数学部分将减少考点,仅保留对大学和职业培训有贡献的考点。学生可以深入学习更核心的数学考点。

考生可全程使用计算器。很难了解学生对于数字的心酸能力和对于知识点的掌握。

仅部分数学可以使用计算器。计算器会被更加合理地应用,但是不使用计算机的部分可以考察学生的认知、流利度以及运算技巧。

阅读和写作不需要数据分析。阅读和写作部分即使涉及科学和社会学,通常也不会包括图表内容,问题也不会要求学生阅读文字并分析数据。

学生会被要求同时分析文章内容和图表,包括指认并纠正文章和数据的差异性。学生会被要求展示他们阅读科学和社会学文章的整个过程。

文章内容来自鲜为人知或不公示的来源。学生在考试之前不会知道阅读的内容和来源。

每次考试会包括一篇美国建国理念文学或者知名国际演说(the Great Global Conversation)。学生会读到诸如《独立宣言》等的建国理念文学,或是林肯盖茨堡演说或是马丁路德金“我有一个梦想”等影响了美国和世界的著名伟大演说.

错题扣分制。选错答案会被扣0.25分,跳过不做不扣分。

错题不扣分(答对题加分)。鼓励学生答每道题。 

作文写作计入总分

写作额外算分

2400分制

1600分制,写作额外算分

SAT仅有笔试

新SAT提供笔试和机考

如下是对这次改革的Washington Post报道英文原文:

The SAT college admission test will no longer require a timed essay, will dwell less on fancy vocabulary and will return to the familiar 1600-point scoring scale in a major overhaul intended to open doors to higher education for students who are now shut out.

 

The second redesign of the SAT in this century — announced Wednesday and scheduled to go into effect when today’s high school freshmen take it in 2016 — aims to strip many of the tricks out of atest currently administered to more than 1.5 million students in every high school graduating class. It also comes with a College Board pledge to offer new test-preparation tutorials for free online, enabling students to bypass pricey SAT-prep classes that previously were available mostly to affluent families looking to give their children an edge.

Out in the redesign will be “SAT words”that have long prompted anxious students to cram with flashcards, as the test will now focus on vocabulary words that are widely used in college and career.The College Board hasn’t yet cited examples of words deemed too obscure, but“punctilious,” “phlegmatic” and “occlusion” are three tough ones in a CollegeBoard study guide.

Out, too, will be a much-reviled rule that deducts a quarter point for each wrong answer to multiple-choice questions,deterring random guesses. Also gone: The 2400-point scale begun nine years agowith the debut of the required essay. The essay will become optional.

Back will be one of the iconic numbers of 20th-century America: The perfect SAT score, crystalline without a comma,returns to 1600.

With these and other changes — such as asking students to analyze documents key to the nation’s founding — CollegeBoard officials said they want to make the SAT more accessible, straightforward and grounded in what is taught in high school. Experts say SAT scores have long been strongly correlated to family income, a dynamic the College Board hopes to shake up. Its initiative comes as the 88-year-old test in recent years hasslipped behind the rival ACT — a shorter exam with an optional essay — in total student customers.

“The road to college success has always been the practice of excellent work in our classrooms,” David Coleman, the College Board’s president, said in an advance copy of a speech planned for Wednesday afternoon in Austin. “It is time for anadmissions assessment that makes it clear that the road to success is not last-minute tricks or cramming, but the challenging learning students do each day.”

At the same time, Coleman fired a broadsideat a test-prep industry that sells books, flashcards and courses to help students raise their scores in the hopes of gaining an edge in competitive college admissions and scholarships.

Coleman said the New York-based organization will team with the nonprofit Khan Academy, which delivers free tutorials in math and other subjects via a popular Web site of the same name,to provide free SAT prep for the world.

“The College Board cannot stand by while some test-prep providers intimidate parents at all levels of income into the belief that the only way they can secure their child’s success is to pay for costly test preparation and coaching,” Colemansaid. “If we believe that assessment must be a force for equity and excellence,it’s time to shake things up.”

Coleman also repeated a pledge he made at the White House in January: The College Board will deliver four college application fee waivers to each test-taker meeting income eligibility requirements, allowing students to apply to four schools for free.

Coleman, head of the College Board sincefall 2012, previously was a key figure in the development of the new Common Core State Standards. Those standards, which set national expectations for whatstudents should learn in math and English from kindergarten through 12th grade,have been fully adopted in 45 states and the District. Coleman’s vision for thenew SAT, with emphasis on analysis of texts from a range of disciplines as wellas key math and language concepts, appears to echo the philosophy underlyingthe Common Core and could match the test more closely to what students arelearning in the classroom

The redesign follows a challenging decadefor a standardized test launched in 1926 that has wielded enormous influence inAmerican education from the Great Depression through the era of No Child LeftBehind. Advocates say the SAT provides a common yardstick for academic merit;critics call it a tool to protect the interests of the elite.

Originally the Scholastic Aptitude Test,the SAT shed that name years ago along with the devilish antonym and analogyquestions that were a staple of what was once called the “verbal” section. Itunderwent a major change in 2005 that drew mixed reviews.

That year, a writing section, worth amaximum 800 points, was added with multiple-choice questions and a 25-minuteessay. Critics complained that too little time was given for essay revisionsand that writing assignments did not reflect the level of analysis expected incollege. Some college admissions officers also were lukewarm.

“As a predictorof student success, a 25-minute essay isn’t going to tell us a great deal,”said Stephen J. Handel, associate vice president of undergraduate admissionsfor the University of California.

And in recent years, more and more studentswere gravitating toward the rival ACT exam. The SAT has long been dominant onthe West coast, in the Northeast and in the Washington region. The ACT,launched in 1959 and overseen by an organization based in Iowa, attracts morestudents in the middle of the country and the South.

The two tests overlap in mission butdiverge in style and content, with the ACT traditionally measuring achievement(including a science section) and the SAT measuring thinking skills. But theACT has made inroads on the SAT’s turf, and many students now take both. In2012, the ACT surpassed the SAT in the number of reported test-takers.

Both exams also are facing challenges fromthe growing test-optional movement. The National Center for Fair and OpenTesting lists about 800 colleges and universities that admit a substantialnumber of undergraduates without requiring them to submit SAT or ACT scores.

Among them is American University, whichstarted the experiment in 2010. Now 18 percent of its applicants do not submit SAT or ACT scores.

“It’s rising,and it’s gone up every year,” said Sharon Alston, AU’s vice provost forundergraduate enrollment. She said the university has not detected “anysignificant difference” in the performance of students who don’t submit testscores compared with those who do.

College Board officials, mindful of thesedevelopments, say the redesign has a larger purpose.

“We’re notjust chasing market share here, I can assure you that,” said Shirley Ort, a topfinancial aid official at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, who isvice chair of the College Board’s governing board. “We want the SAT to be morethan just an event that takes place in a test center. We think it can serve asa catalyst for student engagement.”

The redesign will beef up the essay, givingstudents who choose to take it 50 minutes to analyze evidence and explain howan author builds an argument. The rest of the test will be three hours.Currently the SAT takes three hours and 45 minutes.

The math section will tighten its focus ondata analysis, problem solving, algebra and topics leading into advanced math.Calculators, now permitted throughout the math section, will be barred in someportions to help gauge math fluency.

The section now called “critical reading”will be merged with multiple-choice writing questions to form a new sectioncalled “evidence-based reading and writing.” Questions known as “sentencecompletion,” which in part assess vocabulary, will be dropped. Analysis ofpassages in science, history and social studies will be expanded.

And each version of the test will include apassage from documents crucial to the nation’s founding, or core civic textsfrom sources such as President Abraham Lincoln or the Rev. Martin Luther KingJr.

When the test probes student vocabulary,the College Board said, it will focus on “words that are widely used in collegeand career.”Coleman cited “synthesis” as an example.“This is not an obscureword,but one students encounter everywhere,” he said.

Choosing such words could prove difficult.Carol Jago, a past president of the National Council of Teachers of English,who serves on a College Board advisory panel, said the test revisions would“reward students who take high school seriously, who are real readers, who write well.” She said she was loath to drop from the exam a word such as“egalitarian,” which appears in one College Board practice test. But she said:“Maybe we can live without ‘phlegmatic.’ ”

WP报道原文中文翻译:

SAT入学测试将不再考察计时作文,不会考察花哨的词汇,而是重新回归大家所熟悉的1600分计分制,目的是向那些曾经被拒之门外的学生重新打开高等教育的大门。

本世纪SAT考试的第二次改革于周三宣布,这一改革将于2016年生效,现在的高一在校生如果选择在2016年考试,就可以享受到这一改革政策所带来的好处。这此改革的目的是SAT考试的“去技巧化”,目前有150万高中在校生需要通过大量“技巧”才能通过考试。这次改革带来的另外一个好处是SAT大学委员会承诺提供免费的在线备考课堂,帮助学生通过收费昂贵的SAT考试,而曾经能支付得起SAT考试培训的家庭都是富裕的,打算让孩子站在至高起点处的家庭。

这次改革中也涉及到SAT词汇,之前学生为了准备SAT的词汇部分,花费大量的时间在词汇卡,但是今后的词汇将会重点考察在大学和今后的工作中运用范围比较广泛的词汇。SAT大学委员会还没有就晦涩难懂的词汇给出例子,但是在SAT的官方指南中,“punctilious,”“phlegmatic” and “occlusion”这个词被归类为难词。

同时,这次改革也有一个会被众人鞭笞的规则,那就是在多选题中,每选错一个答案,将会扣除四分之一的分数,这样就可以避免学生随意猜测答案。同时9年前当SAT满分为2400分的时候,作文是必选的,在未来作文部分将会变成可选性的测试。

这次改革也意味着SAT的分数将毫无悬念地重新回归到1600分,而这个分数在20世纪的美国是一个具有里程碑意义的分数。

伴随着这些和其它的一些变化,例如要求学生们分析关于国家成立的关键性文件-大学委员会官员声明他们想要使SAT考试更容易参与,更加简单直接并且将考试设立于教授该考试的高中校园里。专家声明SAT考试分数长期以来一直与家庭收入紧密相连,大学委员会希望为此做出改变。他的主动权的到来是由于这个拥有88年的历史悠久的考试近些年来已经落到其竞争对手ACT考试的后面,ACT考试比SAT考试时间短并且有一个可选择的论文题目,所有学生都可以参加

大学委员会主席大卫•科尔曼在星期三下午于斯汀市的演讲稿中说到,通往大学的成功一直是我们教学最完美工作的实践。是时候拥有一个评估测试来说明通往成功的道路不是最后一分钟的欺诈或者填鸭式的用功,而是学生们每天辛勤努力学习的结果。

于此同时,科尔曼抨击了一个应试辅导的行业,该行业出售那些帮助学生提高考试成绩的图书,单词认识卡和课程,这些内容使学生们提高对于获得竞争激烈的进入大学的许可证和奖学金的希望。

科尔曼说位于纽约的大学委员会将和非盈利性机构Khan Academy一起合作,该非盈利性机构提供免费的数学和其它学科的辅导,通过一个拥有同样名字的流行网站以便于给全世界的学生提供免费的考试准备。

科尔曼说,大学委员会无法不关注,当一些考试辅导机构威胁不同层次收入的家长相信确保他们孩子成功的唯一方式是付出昂贵的费用参加考试准备和考试培训。如果我们相信评估必须是一种强有力的平等和卓越的力量,那么我们是时候要做出改变了。

科尔曼同时反复强调他一月份在白宫做出的保证:大学理事会对于每个满足收入要求的测试者提供4所大学申请费用的减免。

科尔曼从2012年秋天成为大学理事会的负责人,此前他曾是新州立核心标准课程制定和研发的关键人物。这些标准中规定学生应该学习到国家K-12学习数学和英语从幼儿园的内容,已经在45个州和地区完全通过。科尔曼期望,新的SAT考试,在侧重学科范围的同时,强调重点数学和语言的概念,这似乎与美国州立核心标准课程大纲有异曲同工之处,并能更为贴切的测试学生们在课堂中所学的内容。

SAT的重新设计遵循在1926年推出在经济大萧条时期“不让一个孩子掉队“法案在美国教育产生重大影响的一个具有挑战性的十年标准化测试。倡导者说SAT提供了一个学术价值的标准尺度;批评家称之为保护精英利益的工具。

最初的,SAT考试“语文”部分的主要内容伴随着令人恐惧的反义词和类比问题并且持续到2005年才发生重大变化,在此期间它吸引了褒贬不一的评价。

那时候,写作部分,包括多项选择题和一个25分钟的作文,总分为800。批评家认为,这种写作考试形式一方面无法让学生有空余时间修改作文,另一方面也无法反映出学生真实的写作水平。一些大学的招生人员也都对此也是不冷不热的态度。

本科招生的加州大学助理副总裁,斯蒂芬•亨德尔说道:”作为评判学生成功的预测指标,25分钟的作文是不能告诉我们太多关于学生的写作水平。

最近几年,越来越多的学生倾向于选择竞争对手的ACT考试。SAT长期以来一直占主导地位的西海岸,在美国的东北和华盛顿地区。由总部设在爱荷华州的ACT在1959年推出并监督的ACT考试则吸引更多在美国中部和南部的学生。

两个考试在任务上有重复的部分但是在内容和形式上又有不同,ACT是传统的考核方式(包括一个科学部分)而SAT是考察思维技巧。但是ACT慢慢的侵占了SAT的市场,很多考生现在同时参加两门考试。2012年,参加ACT考试的考生数量超越了SAT的考生数量

两个考试都面临着来自其他考试的冲击。国家公平和开放测试中心列出了大约有800个高校录取大量的本科生但并没有要求他们提交SAT或ACT分数。

其中美国大学,从2010年开始。已经有18%的申请者不提交SAT或ACT分数。

“数量还会上升,而且每年都会上升,”澳大利亚对本科招生的副教务长莎朗•斯通说。她表示,与提交ACT和SAT成绩的学生相比,大学并没有从不提交成绩的学生身上发现“任何显著差异”。

大学委员会官员考虑到这些变化,表示会新考试将重新设计并要达到一个更大的目标。

“我们不仅仅是追逐市场份额,我可以向你保证,”来自北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校助学金官员,大学委员会理事会的副主席Shirley说“我们希望SAT不仅仅在考试中心的一个考核。我们认为它可以作为激励学生的催化剂。”

新的SAT考试会对写作部分进行重新设计以及补充,学生需要用50分钟分析证据并且解释作者如何论述一个论点。其余的部分有三个小时。目前SAT考试总时长是3小时45分钟。

在未来考试中,数学部分更加侧重数据分析,问题解决,代数以及高等数学。微积分在现在的考察会在整个数学部分中不限比例的出题;但未来只会出一定比例的题目以帮助考察学生的数学算术能力

批判性阅读,将会和现在多项选择写作题目合并形成一个新的“基于证据的阅读和写作”部分。现有考察考生词汇能力的句子填空题将被取消。对于科学、历史和社会科学的分析部分将进一步扩充。

未来考试中阅读部分都将包含一篇美国建国或者是其他美国社会相关的文章。比如说这种文章可能取材于亚伯拉罕·林肯总统或者马丁·路德·金文集等。

当SAT考试测试学生词汇时,College Board声称,该考试将侧重于考察那些在大学和职场上会普遍使用的单词。Coleman举“synthesis”为例道:“这不是一个生僻难懂的词汇,学生会在很多场合遇到。”

选择这样的词汇能够证明测试的难度。Carol Jago(前英国国家英语教师理事会主席,曾就职于College Board咨询委员会)指出:“考试的改革将对那些在高中认真对待学习,并真正善于阅读和写作的学生有利。”她还说:“她不愿将从考试中将诸如'egalitarian'这样的词汇去掉”,而该词在College Board一次考试中曾经出现。但她还提到:“有可能考试中会去掉如‘phlegmatic’这样的词汇。”

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