修辞手法对于SAT这类比较文艺的阅读而言,是一种十分重要的要素,它能够帮助同学们更为有效和轻松地理解文章。如下是一些关于SAT阅读修辞手法的资料供同学们参考:

1.Simile 明喻

明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比.这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性.

标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等.

例如:

1>.He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow.

2>.I wandered lonely as a cloud.

3>.Einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.

 

2.Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

隐喻是简缩了的明喻,是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成.

例如:

1>.Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.

2>.Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

 

3.Metonymy 借喻,转喻

借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称.

I.以容器代替内容,例如:

1>.The kettle boils. 水开了.

2>.The room sat silent. 全屋人安静地坐着.

II.以资料.工具代替事物的名称,例如:

Lend me your ears, please. 请听我说.

III.以作者代替作品,例如:

a complete Shakespeare 莎士比亚全集

VI.以具体事物代替抽象概念,例如:

I had the muscle, and they made money out of it. 我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱.

 

4.Synecdoche 提喻

提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般.

例如:

1>.There are about 100 hands working in his factory.(部分代整体)

他的厂里约有100名工人.

2>.He is the Newton of this century.(特殊代一般)

他是本世纪的牛顿.

3>.The fox goes very well with your cap.(整体代部分)

这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配.

 

5.Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

这种修辞法是以视.听.触.嗅.味等感觉直接描写事物.通感就是把不同感官的感觉沟通起来,借联想引起感觉转移,“以感觉写感觉”。

通感技巧的运用,能突破语言的局限,丰富表情达意的审美情趣,起到增强文采的艺术效果。比如:欣赏建筑的重复与变化的样式会联想到音乐的重复与变化的节奏;闻到酸的东西会联想到尖锐的物体;听到飘渺轻柔的音乐会联想到薄薄的半透明的纱子;又比如朱自清《荷塘月色》里的“ 微风过处送来缕缕清香,仿佛远处高楼上渺茫的歌声似的”。

例如:

1>.The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.(用视觉形容听觉,鸟落在树上,由它发出的声音联想到百合花)

鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音.

2>.Taste the music of Mozart.(用嗅觉形容听觉)

品尝Mozart的音乐.

 

6.Personification 拟人

拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物.

例如:

1>.The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads.(把夜拟人化)

2>.I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.(把鸟拟人化)

 

7.Hyperbole 夸张

夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的.它可以加强语势,增加表达效果..

例如:

1>.I beg a thousand pardons.

2>.Love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.

3>.When she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.

 

8.Parallelism 排比, 平行

这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语.句子排列成串,形成一个整体.

例如:

1>.No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.

2>.In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, to answer for them. In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.

 

9.Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法

婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话.

例如:

1>.He is out visiting the necessary.?? 他出去方便一下.

2>.His relation with his wife has not been fortunate. 他与妻子关系不融洽.

3>.Deng Xiaoping passed away in 1997. (去世)

 

10.Allegory 讽喻,比方(原意“寓言”)

建立在假借过去或别处的事例与对象之上,传达暗示,影射或者讥讽现世各种现象的含义。

英文解释:an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances; an extended metaphor 摘自英语专业《大学英语教程》一书

这是一种源于希腊文的修辞法,意为"换个方式的说法".它是一种形象的描述,具有双重性,表层含义与真正意味的是两回事.

例如:

1>.Make the hay while the sun shines.

表层含义:趁着出太阳的时候晒草

真正意味:趁热打铁

2>.It's time to turn plough into sword.

表层含义:是时候把犁变成剑

 

11.Irony 反语

反语指用相反意义的词来表达意思的作文方式.如在指责过失.错误时,用赞同过失的说法,而在表扬时,则近乎责难的说法.

例如:

1>.It would be a fine thing indeed not knowing what time it was in the morning.

早上没有时间观念还真是一件好事啊(真实含义是应该明确早上的时间观念)

2>"Of course, you only carry large notes, no small change on you. "the waiter said to the beggar.

 

12.Pun 双关

双关就是用一个词在句子中的双重含义,借题发挥.作出多种解释,旁敲侧击,从而达到意想不到的幽默.滑稽效果.它主要以相似的词形.词意和谐音的方式出现.

例如:

1>.She is too low for a high praise, too brown for a fair praise and too little for a great praise.

2>.An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.

3>.If we don't hang together, we shall hang separately.

 

13.Parody 仿拟

这是一种模仿名言.警句.谚语,改动其中部分词语,从而使其产生新意的修辞.

例如:

1>.Rome was not built in a day, nor in a year.

2>.A friend in need is a friend to be avoided.

3>.If you give a girl an inch nowadays she will make address of it.

 

14.Rhetorical question 修辞疑问(反问)

它与疑问句的不同在于它并不以得到答复为目的,而是以疑问为手段,取得修辞上的效果,其特点是:肯定问句表示强烈否定,而否定问句表示强烈的肯定.它的答案往往是不言而喻的.

例如:

1>.How was it possible to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing worth of note?

2>.Shall we allow those untruths to go unanswered?

15.Antithesis 对照,对比,对偶

这种修辞指将意义完全相反的语句排在一起对比的一种修辞方法.

例如:

1>.Not that I loved Caeser less but that I loved Romemore.

2>.You are staying; I am going.

3>.Give me liberty, or give me death.

 

16.Paradox 隽语

这是一种貌似矛盾,但包含一定哲理的意味深长的说法,是一种矛盾修辞法..

例如:

1>.More haste, less speed.欲速则不达

2>.The child is the father to the man.(童年时代可决定人之未来)三岁看大,四岁看老。

 

17.Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻

这也是一种矛盾修辞法,用两种不相调和的特征形容一个事物,以不协调的搭配使读者领悟句中微妙的含义.

例如:

1>.No light, but rather darkness visible.没有光亮,黑暗却清晰可见

2>.The state of this house is cheerless welcome.

 

18.Climax 渐进法,层进法

这种修辞是将一系列词语按照意念的大小.轻重.深浅.高低等逐层渐进,最后达到顶点.可以增强语势,逐渐加深读者印象.

例如:

1>.I am sorry, I am so sorry, I am so extremely sorry.

2>.Eye had not seen nor ear heard, and nothing had touched his heart of stone.

 

19.Anticlimax 渐降法

与climax相反的一种修辞法,将一系列词语由大到小,由强到弱地排列.

例如:

1>.On his breast he wears his decorations, at his side a sword, on his feet a pair of boots.

2>.The duties of a soldier are to protect his country and peel potatoes

 

20. Understatement:低调的陈述

定义:A figure of speech which contains an understatement of emphasis, and therefore the opposite of hyperbole. Often used in everyday speech and usually with laconic or ironic intentions.
这种修辞格是故意使用有节制的措辞来陈述事实,故意轻描淡写,借低调与弱化语言形式来表示强调。

例子:1.I know he is honest, and I wish I could add he were capable.
我知道他是诚实的,我还希望我能说他是能干的。
此句也是用虚拟语气来体现understatement,I could add he were capable其实是在说“但他不够能干”。
2.The face wasn’t a bad one; it had what they called charm.
面孔不算难看,有一般人所称的妩媚。
此句不是冲淡她的魅力,而是采用低调渲染,意即The face was sweet; her charm conquered everybody. 明似贬抑,实则褒扬.